National Anthem
28 Meg Download

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Population: 1,029,991,145 (July 2001 est.)
Area: total:  3,287,590 sq km
land:  2,973,190 sq km
water:  314,400 sq km
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:  Kanchenjunga 8,598 m


1995, 2004, 2007,
2008, 2010, 2012, 2016


Previous Page       Home Page