The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.
Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
2 00 S, 77 30 W
Population: 13,183,978 (July 2001 est.)
Area: total:  283,560 sq km
land:  276,840 sq km
water:  6,720 sq km
note:  includes Galapagos Islands
slightly smaller than Nevada
Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Elevation: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point:  Chimborazo 6,267 m

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